NURS530 week 3 discussion 1:Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type Essay

NURS530 week 3 discussion 1:Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type Essay

Dementia of Alzheimer’s type (DAT) is a deadly neurological disorder marked by a decline in cognitive abilities, memory loss, and the capacity to perform daily tasks, as well as a host of psychological and behavioral disorders. About two-thirds of all instances of dementia and between sixty and seventy percent of all the cases of increasing cognitive decline in elderly individuals can be attributed to DAT (Duchek et al., 2020). Neuropsychiatric symptoms include anger, anxiety, lethargy, stress, psychosis, and hallucinations, and are typically seen in individuals with DAT.


Beta-amyloid extrinsic deposition (in senile plaques) and Neurofibrillary Intracellular Tangles are the two pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease. Impairment of synapses and neurons, typically starting in the mesial temporal lobe, results from beta-amyloid buildup and neurofibrillary tangles, leading to widespread brain atrophy (Breijyeh & Karaman, 2020). Not enough is known about how beta-amyloid compounds and neurofibrillary tangles do their damage.

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According to the amyloid theory, the clinical symptoms of dementia result from a chain reaction that begins with the gradual accumulation of beta-amyloid in the central nervous system and ends with the death of neurons, the atrophy of synapses between neurons, and the gradual deformities of neurons. Alzheimer’s disease is now known to involve prion mechanisms. In prion diseases, a normal protein found on the brain cell surface, known as prion protein, gets misfolded into a harmful shape. Following this, the prion causes additional prion proteins to misfold in a similar fashion, leading to a dramatic increase in the number of prion proteins.

Clinical Manifestation

Neuropsychiatric symptoms, also known as psychological and behavioral signs of dementia, include anger, anxiety, lethargy, stress, psychosis, and hallucinations and are typically seen in patients with DAT. Prevalence estimates range from 60% to 80%, based on whether individuals live at home or in a facility, and the risk of developing neuropsychiatric symptoms throughout a person’s lifetime is close to 100% (Matyas et al., 2019).

Mild DAT Impairment is characterized by forgetfulness and one or more of the other identified issues.

  • Regular, mild forgetfulness with only a fragmented recall of recent occurrences.
  • Generally well-oriented, although he or she has some trouble understanding time.
  • Slight difficulties in problem-solving and distinguishing between similarities and differences (e.g., understanding that a trumpet and guitar are both musical instruments).
  • Negligible impact on social life and community functions.
  • There is a minor disruption to home life, extracurricular activities, and academic pursuits.
  • Competent in all aspects of self-care (e.g., bathing, dressing)

Moderate DAT Impairment: Memory loss and a couple of the other issues indicated.

  • Extreme forgetfulness. Only the most important information is stored. There is a quick deterioration in the acquisition of new information.
  • People with this disorder have a hard time keeping track of time and are frequently disoriented both spatially and temporally.
  • Extremely poor problem-solving and comparison-and-contrast skills.
  • They appear to be doing well enough to be taken to social events away from home; they may be capable of performing light housework.
  • Very limited range of interests; they are often neglected; need help with basic activities like getting dressed and keeping personal belongings organized.

Extreme DAT Impairment, including memory loss and the other symptoms listed.

  • Irreversible memory loss: only shards of previous recollection remain.
  • Disoriented in time and space, focused solely on the individual, unable to form sound judgments or find workable solutions to difficulties
  • There will be no pretense of working outside the home.
  • Appears too unwell to be taken to social gatherings; serves no purpose at home or in terms of hobbies.
  • Needs a lot of assistance in the areas of self-care. Continual bladder leakage is a prevalent problem.


In clinical and scientific settings, DAT is diagnosed using criteria from either the DSM-IV-TR or the NINCDS/ADRDA. According to the NINCDS/ADRDA guidelines, the probability of DAT is categorized into three parts: definite, probable, and potential. Memory loss and decline in at least one other cognitive area are required by the DSM-IV-TR criteria (Matyas et al., 2019). Similar to the DSM-IV-TR, the NINCDS/ADRDA clinical diagnostic criteria necessitate the observation of a progressive deterioration in cognitive abilities and the rule out of other possible causes, such as thyroid problems. When comparing DAT to other types of dementia, the selectivity of the NINCDS/ADRDA and the DSM-IV-TR is between 65 and 96%, whereas the specificity is between 23 and 88% (Matyas et al., 2019).


In the preclinical stage of a condition, disease-modifying drugs are much more efficacious. If new therapeutic options like beta-amyloid immunotherapy are discovered to have disease-halting effects, then prospective indicators and neuroimaging could have a significant public health impact (Fink et al., 2020). Currently, there is not enough evidence to recommend or even employ biomarkers in routine clinical practice for the diagnosis or management of dementia. Drugs alone aren’t enough to treat DAT effectively; other non-pharmacological approaches are also needed. Because the disease worsens over time, treatment plans need to be revisited and adjusted over time to keep up with the patient’s evolving requirements.


Breijyeh, Z., & Karaman, R. (2020). Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)25(24), 5789.

Duchek, J. M., Aschenbrenner, A. J., Fagan, A. M., Benzinger, T. L., Morris, J. C., & Balota, D. A. (2020). The relation between personality and biomarkers in sensitivity and conversion to Alzheimer-type dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society26(6), 596-606.

Fink, H. A., Linskens, E. J., MacDonald, R., Silverman, P. C., McCarten, J. R., Talley, K. M., & Butler, M. (2020). Benefits and harms of prescription drugs and supplements for treatment of clinical Alzheimer-type dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals Of Internal Medicine172(10), 656-668.

Matyas, N., Aschenberger, F. K., Wagner, G., Teufer, B., Auer, S., Gisinger, C., & Gartlehner, G. (2019). Continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s-type dementia: a systematic review and overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open9(7), e027719.



Select all of the following discussion prompts to address:

Consider the impact of spinal cord injury and the potential scope of lifetime disability and sequelae associated with spinal cord injury. The greatest challenge facing the neuroscience community involves developing therapy that will allow damaged nerve tissue to be regrown and regenerated. Reflect on this article

Links to an external site.
and discuss the importance of Schwann cells and their impact on damaged axons.
Describe the genetic components, pathophysiology, and major neurologic features of neurofibromatosis, Cri du chat syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, and Parkinson disease (early onset).
Define dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation and treatment.
Use at least one scholarly source other than your textbook to connect your response to national guidelines and evidence-based research in support of your ideas.

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