The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

The growth, development, and learned behaviors that occur during the first year of infancy have a direct effect on the individual throughout a lifetime. For this assignment, research an environmental factor that poses a threat to the health or safety of infants and develop a health promotion that can be presented to caregivers.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

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Create a 10-12 slide PowerPoint health promotion, with speaker notes, that outlines a teaching plan. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice over or a video. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for references at the end.

In developing your PowerPoint, take into consideration the health care literacy level of your target audience, as well as the demographic of the caregiver/patient (socioeconomic level, language, culture, and any other relevant characteristic of the caregiver) for which the presentation is tailored.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Include the following in your presentation:

1. Describe the selected environmental factor. Explain how the environmental factor you selected can potentially affect the health or safety of infants.

2. Create a health promotion plan that can be presented to caregivers to address the environmental factor and improve the overall health and well-being of infants.

3. Offer recommendations on accident prevention and safety promotion as they relate to the selected environmental factor and the health or safety of infants.

4. Offer examples, interventions, and suggestions from evidence-based research. At least three scholarly resources are required. Two of the three resources must be peer-reviewed and no more than 6 years old.

5. Provide readers with two community resources, a national resource, and a Web-based resource. Include a brief description and contact information for each resource.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Refer to the resource, “Loom,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on recording your presentation.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Due Date: Saturday 15

Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They grow physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. However, through this portfolio, I intend to discuss the physical growth and development patterns of the infant through their first year.To begin with, development refers to the baby’s increased skill in using various body parts. When dealing with the development of a child there are three basic developmental rules.First Developmental Rule:This rule states that babies develop in the head region first, then the trunk, and lastly in the legs and feet. Therefore, it is said that babies develop in a head-to-toe direction or cephalocaudally. For example, a baby can hold up their head before they can grasp an…show more content…
Clearly, this is a very rapid growth rate, however, the rate of growth slows down considerably after infancy.The HeadThe head of a newborn baby is very large compared to the rest of their body. For example, compared to the baby’s total length of about 20 inches, the length of the head measures approximately 5 inches…which equals one-fourth of the total length.There are four pieces of bone that make up the skull. These pieces are flexible. This is so that they can move slightly while the baby is being forced down the birth canal. The four skull bones will no join until the baby is about 18 months old. The area between the "pieces", at the top of the baby’s head is called the fontanel, or the "soft spot". The flexibility of the skull gives the baby protection form concussion caused by bumps or falls. I remember being warned when my little sister was born, not to touch her head because of this "soft spot". However, through my research, I found out that you cannot hurt a baby by touching the head gently. The Brain Even though the brain is large at birth, it’s development is incomplete. The part of the brain controlling posture and balance develops rapidly during the baby’s first year of life. EyesBabies are able to see at birth. Primarily, they notice movement. Also, research shows that newborn babies are best able to see an object that is between 5 and 18 inches The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Infancy and Early Childhood Development Every human being begins developing in one way or another, from the moment they come into this world. Development and all its aspects begin in infancy and continue throughout one’s entire lifetime. It is a common belief that infants and young children are influenced by the environment that surrounds them. Cognitive and social aspects of development are shaped and molded at an early age, as well as language, speech, perception, and motor skills. A young child’s life is influenced by parents and family members, which is why they have a significant impact on the child’s development. When a …show more content…
As a result of this freedom the child may grow up to have a little sense of responsibility. The permissive style of parenting is quite the complete opposite of the authoritarian approach. The uninvolved parenting style is fairly self-explanatory and is similar to the permissive parenting style. Parents who subscribe to this parenting style, tend to not have an interest in their child’s development and growth. The consequences of uninvolved parenting are similar to that of permissive parenting (Livestrong, 2010). Under the authoritative style, parents take on characteristics of both a permissive and authoritarian style. While authoritative parents set rules for the child, they also try to guide the child in the right direction while giving him or her enough freedom to make decisions and individual choices based on what the parents have taught them. A child reared in an authoritative atmosphere often develops a good sense of responsibility and self-reliance, and are often said to be at a developmental advantage compared to children raised in a permissive, uninvolved, or authoritarian atmosphere (Livestrong, 2010). The authoritative parenting style seems to have the most positive advantages in comparison to the other three parenting styles. The authoritative parenting style has less negative influences on the child’s growth The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Different milestones characterize each stage of infant (0 to 12 months) and toddler (12 to 36 months) development. Although most healthy infants and toddlers reach each milestone within a specific window of time, there is much variation as to how wide that window may be. For example, culture, environment, socioeconomic status, and genetic factors can influence when an infant or toddler will begin to crawl, walk, or talk. Children who suffer from undernutrition, who lack social stimuli, or who lack access to proper health care may develop more slowly than children in more enriched environments. Concerns about infant or toddler development arise when milestones are absent or significantly delayed, since such situations may signal an underlying physical or mental condition. Identifying problems early in development is vital to a child’s health. Although parents are often the first to raise concerns, teachers and child care workers may spot problems that parents have not noticed or have been afraid to acknowledge. They may also be able to identify abused or neglected children who exhibit abnormal development.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Early in the 20th century, child development scholars began to understand that children were not just “small adults” but individuals with unique personalities and distinct needs. In the 1920s and ’30s Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget developed a theory that children’s cognitive abilities progress through four stages. According to Piaget, a sensorimotor stage characterized the first two years of life, during which time a child also becomes aware of the permanence of existence of objects in his or her environment. The work of Russian psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky, which reached English-speaking audiences around the same time as Piaget’s research, provided insight into how children think and develop language.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

In 1933 the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) was established in the United States to apply new concepts in child development to improving the lives of the country’s children. The society initially focused on understanding how poverty and social deprivation affected development, with the aim of using that knowledge to design policies and programs to alleviate the negative effects of poverty. In 1964 U.S. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson launched his War on Poverty, and in 1965 the U.S. Congress established the Head Start Program, which promotes “school readiness” for children from birth to five years. The program focuses its efforts on children from low-income families and offers health, nutritional, and social support to enrolled children and families.

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Infancy
Within hours of a normal birth, most infants are alert and beginning to react to their surroundings. Although immature, all body systems are operating. Infants have the ability to swallow, suck, gag, cough, yawn, blink, and eliminate waste. Hearing is well developed, but it takes several years for vision to reach adult levels. Studies conducted on newborns demonstrate that newborns can already discriminate facelike shapes from straight lines. The startle reflex is also apparent, and newborns react to sudden unexpected movements and loud noises. The grasping reflex allows even the tiniest infants to hold onto someone’s finger. The sense of smell and taste are also evident, and infants will turn away from unpleasant smells and express preferences for sweet tastes over bitter.

Physically, heads are large in proportion to the rest of the body. Average birth weight varies from about 2.5 to 4.5 kg (5.5 to 10 pounds), and length varies from 45.7 to 53.3 cm (18 to 21 inches). After losing 5 to 7 percent of birth weight, infants begin to gain an average of 142 to 170 grams (5 to 6 ounces) a week. Over the next few days, infants develop their own patterns, alternating from sleep to crying to alertness and returning to sleep. Young infants sleep in the fetal position; when placed on their backs, the chance of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is reduced. Many infants sleep from three to four hours between feedings, initially requiring from 6 to 10 feedings per day.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Crying and fussing are the major forms of communication for infants. Research reveals that babies respond well to “baby talk,” which is considered essential to language development. Infants react to touch and will turn toward a voice, particularly that of the mother, and will seek out the breast or bottle. They like to be held close over the heart, and wrapping them firmly in blankets (swaddling) is often soothing. A distressed infant may also be quieted by shushing sounds, which remind them of noises heard in the womb.

Between two and three months, newborn reflexes begin to disappear. If this does not occur, it may be an indication of neurological problems. At this stage, infants cry less and begin to engage in social smiling. They entertain themselves as they discover their own fingers and toes. Favourite toys are mobiles and rattles, and babies enjoy games such as bye-bye and pat-a-cake. Attachment to parents and primary caregivers is normal. Around eight or nine months, separation anxiety surfaces, and babies object to being away from parents or caregivers.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

By four months of age, vision improves, and infants pay attention to bright objects, preferring primary colours, particularly red. In one study, infants who were shown both symmetrical and asymmetrical faces expressed a preference for the symmetry of faces that had been identified as “attractive” by adults. Between the ages of five and eight months, however, infant preference was for asymmetry. Young infants who tended to prefer consonant musical tones reacted to variations in rhythm by eight months. Children learn by imitation, and how well infants and toddlers learn to mimic others is a vital key in tracking healthy development. One of the first signs of infant imitation is responding to a smile with a smile. Later, infants learn to mimic other facial expressions and sounds.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

As normal infants grow, the head and chest circumference become relatively equal. Infants learn to flip from one side to the other in a prone position. They progress to sitting alone and to crawling. Pulling up on someone’s hands or furniture is followed by standing alone. By the end of the first year, many babies have taken their first steps. Following the cooing of early infancy, older infants vocalize simple sounds and begin to say words such as dada, mama, and bye-bye. The infant can now pick up small pieces of food and manipulate a spoon and baby cup. Infants try to brush their own hair and turn the pages of books. They enjoy songs and rhymes and may try to dance and sing. Babies are highly social at this stage and like to be included in family life. They understand approval and will join in clapping. Some infants also exhibit independence by resisting, kicking, or screaming. In some cultures, this independence is strictly discouraged, whereas others see it as normal.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Toddler Years
At the end of the first year of life, infants become toddlers. Between ages one and three, physical growth slows as toddlers learn to master motor and communication skills. Imitation continues to be a major element in normal development, often taking the shape of playing house or school or pretending to be princesses or superheroes. Normal toddlers have seemingly unlimited energy, enthusiasm, and curiosity, and they begin to develop complex thinking and learning abilities. Emotional communication ranges from freely bestowed hugs and kisses to crying and tantrums. Older toddlers understand the concepts of guilt, pride, and shame and display them at appropriate times. Toddlers tend to believe they are the centre of the universe. They understand the concept of ownership but may be unwilling to share or take turns.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

The circumference of the head, which indicates healthy brain development, continues to grow at a rate of 1.3 cm (one-half inch) every six months. By age three, most toddlers will have quadrupled their birthweight and doubled their birth height. The toddler body begins to develop an adultlike appearance, although the abdomen protrudes and the back appears swayed until age three. Even toddlers who walk well may fall when hurrying. Push-and-pull toys and large balls are ideal for toddlers and help them to develop motor skills and coordination. The toddler can climb into a large chair or sit in a small chair unaided.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

At age one, a toddler draws by using whole-arm movement. By age three, these skills have progressed to finger/thumb manipulation. By the end of the third year, most toddlers are toilet trained but may continue to have accidents when they are engrossed in an activity or while sleeping. By age two, many toddlers have learned to manipulate doorknobs. If no child-safety measures are in place, the toddler may leave a room or dwelling without adults’ being aware. This ability combined with an inherent curiosity makes toddlers prone to wandering. Thus, they require constant adult attention, particularly in public and in unfamiliar places.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Because the toddler now understands the concept of object permanence, he or she enjoys hiding objects and playing hide and seek. Although toddlers like to play with other children, they may not cooperate or follow established rules. The ability to hold toys or objects in both hands at one time is a key indicator of normal neural development. The toddler should be able to identify body parts and objects, place one object inside another, and make mechanical objects perform their intended functions. The toddler is able to follow simple directions. Language skills progress rapidly, and the toddler advances from simple words to whole sentences. By age three, the toddler is able to carry on conversations with others, although some words may not be intelligible. Toddlers begin to understand the concept of cause and effect, but they are not always able to identify situations that may pose danger. Appetite begins to decline, and toddlers frequently insist on eating only one or two preferred foods. They can undress themselves and assist in getting dressed, manipulating large buttons, zippers, and Velcro fastenings. The toddler is able to wash his or her hands and imperfectly brush his or her own teeth. Toddlers may sleep 10 to 12 hours a night, but they may try to put off their bedtime.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

By age three, most toddlers have progressed beyond the “terrible twos” to become friendlier and more cooperative. Females have reached 57 percent of their adult height, and males have reached 53 percent. The average three-year-old weighs from 13.6 to 17.2 kg (30 to 38 pounds). The head now appears in proportion to the rest of the body, and the body is more erect. Most three-year-olds have all of their baby teeth, and vision has improved to 20/40. Jumping and hopping are favourite means of locomotion. The child is able to manipulate the pedals of small riding toys, and hand dominance is apparent. Many toddlers are able to identify primary colours, identify common shapes, and count from 1 to 10 or 20. The three-year-old vocabulary generally contains between 300 and 1,000 words, and the child may memorize favourite songs, stories, and nursery rhymes. In rare cases, three-years-old have mastered the ability to read.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Babies are not only growing physically during the first 2 years of life, but also cognitively (mentally). Every day while they interact with and learn about their environment they are creating new connections and pathways between nerve cells both within their brains, and between their brains and bodies. While physical growth and change is easily observed and measured in precise terms such as in inches and pounds, cognitive change and development is a little harder to determine as clearly. Therefore, much about what experts know about mental and cognitive development is based on the careful observation of developmental theorists and their theories, such as Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and Erickson’s psychosocial stages. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model also helps explain infant mental growth to some extent.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

baby boyAccording to Piaget, newborns interact with their environment entirely through reflexive behaviors. They do not think about what they’re going to do, but rather follow their instincts and involuntary reactions to get what they need: food, air, and attention. Piaget believed that as babies begin to grow and learn about their environment through their senses, they begin to engage in intentional, goal-directed behaviors. In other words, they begin to think about what they want to accomplish, how to accomplish it, and then they do it. This is also when infants develop object permanence, which is the ability to understand that something still exists even if it can’t be seen. These two milestones, goal-directed behavior and object permanence, are the highlights and major accomplishments of infant cognitive development.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

Piaget separated infancy into six sub-stages, which have been adjusted somewhat over the years as new research and discoveries have occurred The sub-stages include: reflexive activity, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of secondary schemes, tertiary circular reactions, and beginning or representational thought. While these sub-stages sound highly confusing and complicated, they will be explained in more detail in the next paragraphs in order to simplify them and highlight the important aspects of each.

The first sub-stage is reflexive activity, which lasts from birth to approximately 1 month. According to Piaget, while babies are engaging in reflexive actions such as sucking when offered a bottle or the breast, or other reflexes covered earlier in this article, they are learning about their environment and how they can interact with it. Babies don’t think about behaving reflexively; they simply act out those reflexes automatically.The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

The second sub-stage is primary circular reactions, which spans the ages of 1 to 4 months. During this time, babies intentionally repeat actions that bring them pleasure and desired outcomes. In other words, they do things on purpose because it feels good or it gets them what they want. For example, a small infant may suck on her fist because it feels good to her and it soothes her. Researchers believe that babies of this age may also develop expectancy about cause and effect situations. Babies will begin to see that a pattern of events is connected, and begin to expect the second event after they experience the first event. For example, a baby of this age may learn that when they see a bottle, they expect they will soon be fed. Babies’ expectancies about the predictability of their environment form the foundation of Erickson’s observation that young infants learn to either trust or mistrust their environment. If a baby learns the pattern that they have a need, such as hunger or discomfort, and that need is regularly addressed, they learn to expect their needs to be met and they learn to trust. On the other hand, if babies learn a pattern that they have needs and those needs are not regularly addressed, they will learn to expect that their needs will not be met and they learn to mistrust the world around them. The Growth And Development of Infants Essay

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